Cover2

NATURGESCHICHTE    

ALLGÄU        

covershMichael F. Schneider (1999):
ENTOMOLOGY - A Textbook for Students, Agriculturalists and Foresters in Papua New Guinea; Bulolo University College; Training Manual No 19; ISBN 9980-85-259-3; 312 pp., 11 colour plates

Features of this book:

  • the first Entomology book produced for PNG
  • addresses students as well as professionals of science, agriculture and forestry
  • most examples taken from PNG’s insect fauna
  • more than 60 pages on insect orders
  • includes eleven colour plates
  • more than 220 figures illustrating the text
  • further reading suggestions for each chapter
  • includes about 350 references
  • more than 1,200 terms explained in the glossary
  • cross-references and index included for the convenience of the reader
  • comprehensive list of forest insect pests of PNG
  • includes appropriate, low-ecological impact control measures for forest insect pests

pdf-files of this book can be viewed (downloads between 200 KB and 1 MB)

Table of Contents
Preface IV
Acknowledgements VI
Remarks on Scientific Names and Terms VIII

1. Introduction
1.1 Insect Diversity 2
1.2 Insects and Humans 3
1.3 Insect Trade and Conservation 5
1.4 Biogeography of Insects 7

2. Structure and Function
2.1 External Anatomy 10
2.1.1 Integument and Exoskeleton 11
2.1.2 Head 11
2.1.2.1 Antennae 12
2.1.2.2 Mouthparts 12
2.1.3 Thorax 16
2.1.3.1 Legs 17
2.1.3.2 Wings 18
2.1.4 Abdomen 18
2.2 Internal Anatomy and Life Processes 19
2.2.1 Digestion and Excretion 19
2.2.2 Circulatory System 20
2.2.3 Gas Exchange 20
2.2.4 Nervous System 21
2.2.5 Endo- and Exocrine System 22
2.2.6 Sense Organs 23
2.2.7 Locomotion 24
2.2.8 Reproduction 25
2.2.9 Development 27

3. Response and Behaviour
3.1 Communication 36
3.1.1 Auditory Communication 36
3.1.2 Visual Communication 38
3.1.3 Chemical Communication 38
3.1.4 Tactile Communication 39
3.2 Insect Societies 40
3.2.1 Termites 41
3.2.2 Bees 44
3.2.3 Ants 47

4. Insects and Ecology
4.1 Food Chain and Materials Triangle 52
4.2 Insect-Plant Interactions 53
4.2.1 Herbivory 53
4.2.2 Pollination by Insects 54
4.2.3 Seed Dispersal by Insects 55
4.2.4 Other Symbiotic Interactions 56
4.3 Interactions between Insects and other Animals 57
4.3 1 Predation 58
4.3.2 Parasitism 59
4.4 Insect Defence 60
4.4 1 Protective Colour Patterns 61
4.4.2 Morphological Defence 61
4.4.3 Behavioural Defence 62
4.4.4 Chemical Defence 62
4.4.5 Mimicry 64
4.5 Interactions between Insects and Microorganisms 65
4.6 Insects as Decomposers 65

5. Evolution and Classification
5.1 Phylogeny of Insects 78
5.2 Fossil History 79
5.3 Taxonomy and Classification 79
5.4 Identification of Specimens 81
5.5 Synopsis of the Animal Phylum Arthropoda 81
5.5.1 Subphylum Chelicerata 82
5.5.1.1 Order Araneae (True Spiders) 82
5.5.1.2 Order Acari (Acarina: Mites, Ticks) 83
5.5.1.3 Order Opiliones (Harvestmen) 86
5.5.1.4 Order Scopriones (Scorpions) 86
5.5.1.5 Order Pseudoscorpiones (Pseudoscorpions) 87
5.5.1.6 Order Pedipalpi 87
5.5.2 Subphylum Mandibulata 87
5.5.2.1 Class Chilopoda (Centipedes) 87
5.5.2.2 Class Progoneata (Millipedes) 87
5.5.2.3 Class Entognatha 88
5.5.2.4 Class Insecta (Insects) 89
5.6 The Insect Orders 90
5.6.1 Simple Key to Insect Orders 90
5.6.2 Synopsis of Insect Orders 92
5.6.3 Outline of Insect Orders 92
5.6.3.1 Archaeognatha (Bristletails) 92
5.6.3.2 Thysanura (Silverfish, Firebrats) 93
5.6.3.3 Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) 93
5.6.3.4 Odonata (Damselflies and Dragonflies) 94
5.6.3.5 Plecoptera (Stoneflies) 94
5.6.3.6 Blattodea (Cockroaches) 95
5.6.3.7 Isoptera (Termites) 96
5.6.3.8 Mantodea (Praying Mantids) 97
5.6.3.9 Grylloblattodea (Ice Crawlers) 97
5.6.3.10 Dermaptera (Earwigs) 98
5.6.3.11 Orthoptera (Crickets, Katydids, Grasshoppers and Locusts) 98
5.6.3.12 Phasmatodea (Stick and Leaf Insects) 100

5.6.3.13 Embioptera (Web- or Footspinners) 101
5.6.3.14 Psocoptera (Booklice, Barklice; Psocids) 101
5.6.3.15 Zoraptera 102
5.6.3.16 Phthiraptera (Lice) 102
5.6.3.17 Hemiptera (Aphids, Leafhoppers, Scale Insects, Lerps, Cicadas, True Bugs, etc.) 103
5.6.3.18 Thysanoptera (Thrips) 109
5.6.3.19 Megaloptera (Alderflies and Dobsonflies) 110
5.6.3.20 Raphidioptera (Snake-Flies, Camelneck-Flies) 110
5.6.3.21 Neuroptera (Lacewings and Antlions) 111
5.6.3.22 Lentilburgeroptera 112

5.6.3.23 Coleoptera (Beetles) 112
5.6.3.24 Strepsiptera (Stylops) 122
5.6.3.25 Mecoptera (Scorpion Flies, Hanging Flies) 123
5.6.3.25 Siphonaptera (Fleas) 123
5.6.3.26 Diptera (True Flies, Midges, Mosquitoes, Crane Flies, Sandflies, Gnats, Punkies) 124

5.6.3.27 Trichoptera (Caddis Flies) 132
5.6.3.28 Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths) 133
5.6.3.29 Hymenoptera (Sawflies, Wasps, Bees and Ants) 147
5.6.4 Literature on the Identification of Insects 154

Color Plates 1 - 6
Color Plates 7 - 11

6. Forest Insect Pests and their Signs
6.1 Insect Damage and Sign Categories 159
6.1.1 Leaf Damage 159
6.1.2 Seed and Cone Damage 160
6.1.3 Shoot, Twig, Trunk and Root Damage 161
6.1.4 Insect Signs 162
6.2 Common Forest Insect Pests of Papua New Guinea 162

6.2.1 Termite Pests 174
6.2.2 Orthopteran Pests 182
6.2.3 Hemipteran Pests 182
6.2.4 Dipteran Pests 184
6.2.5 Coleopteran Pests. 184
6.2.6 Lepidopteran Pests 192
6.2.7 Hymenopteran Pests 197
6.3 Forest Insect Pests of other South Pacific Countries 198

7. Assessment of Insect Populations
7.1 Monitoring Strategies 202
7.1.1 Sampling Techniques 203
7.1.2 Absolute Methods 203
7.1.3 Relative Methods 204
7.1.4 Direct and Indirect Assessment 204
7.1.5 Damage Assessment 205
7.2 Collection and Trapping Methods 206
7.3 Collection and Preservation of Insect Specimens for Identification 211
7.3.1 Collection of Insect Specimens 211
7.3.2 Rearing of Immature Insects 212
7.3.3 Killing Methods 212
7.3.4 Labelling of Specimens 213
7.3.5 Wet Preservation of Specimens 213
7.3.6 Dry Preservation of Specimens 214
7.3.7 Transport of Insect Specimens 216
7.3.8 Storage of Dried Insect Specimens 216

8. Insect Pest Management
8.1 Insects as Pests 220
8.2 Prevention or Cure? 222
8.2.1 Preventive Measures in Forestry 222
8.2.2 Available Curative Measures 224
8.3 Quarantine 224
8.4 Plant Resistance 225
8.5 Cultural Methods 226
8.6 Mechanical and Physical Methods 226
8.7 Biological Methods 227
8.7.1 Entomopathogens 230
8.7.2 Predators and Parasites 232
8.7.3 Plant-derived Insecticides 236
8.8 Chemical Methods 239
8.8.1 Insecticide Classes 239
8.8.2 Some Important Facts about Chemical Insecticides 241
8.8.3 Safe Use of Insecticides 244
8.8.4 Calculation of Concentration 245
8.8.5 Pesticide Legislation 245
8.8.6 Application of Insecticides 248
8.9 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 252

References 255
Glossary 265
Addresses 290
Abbreviations 291
Questions for Self-ASSESSMENT 292
Index 294

Errata